If ATP synthase is enzymatically neutralized within a cell, which of the following consequences would be the most logical outcome?
|A)||Negative feedback will be decreased, causing faster ATP production.|
|B)||The electron transport chain will slow down.|
|C)||The cell will have no mechanism to make ATP and will die.|
|D)||Phosphylation of ADP will decrease.|
|E)||All of the above will occur.|
For one molecule of glucose, what is the maximum number of ATP molecules created directly from the Krebs cycle?
What is the name of the mechanism by which pyruvate dehydrogenase is inhibited by the end-product of the biochemical pathway?
During yeast fermentation, CO2 is produced, but animal cells do not produce CO2. What is the difference in their fermentation strategies?
|A)||Yeast fermentation creates ethanol.|
|B)||Animal cells create ATP and ethanol.|
|C)||Animal cells do not undergo fermentation.|
|D)||Yeast cells ferment pyruvate to lactic acid.|
|E)||There is no difference in their fermentation pathways.|
Which of the following argues most strongly for glycolysis as one of the most primitive biochemical pathway?
|A)||It does not require oxygen in order to function.|
|B)||It occurs in the cytoplasm of cells.|
|C)||It is exergonic, and therefore obeys the laws of thermodynamics which are fundamental to chemistry and physics.|
|D)||This biochemical pathway has been retained by all living organisms.|
|E)||There is no evidence that glycolysis is primitive|
Cellular respiration is
|A)||the utilization of oxygen in a cell.|
|B)||the oxidation of organic compounds to extract energy from chemical bonds.|
|C)||production of ATP in a cell.|
|D)||the conversion of the energy of sunlight to chemical energy.|
|E)||reduction of NADH to drive chemical reactions in a cell.|
Because it has 6 carbons, glucose can power 6 cycles ("turns") of the Krebs cycle
Which of the following statements is false?
|A)||Some ATP is consumed in glycolysis.|
|B)||The end product of glycolysis is lactic acid or ethanol.|
|C)||Some ATP is created through substrate-level phosphorylation.|
|D)||Overall, glycolysis releases energy and is thus termed exergonic.|
|E)||All of the above statements are true.|
Where in a eukaryotic cell does pyruvate oxidation occur?
|A)||In the mitochondrion.|
|B)||In the electron transport chain.|
|C)||In the cytoplasm, just like in prokaryotes.|
|D)||Anywhere in the cell, provided pyruvate dehydrogenase is present.|
The Krebs cycle is responsible for making most of the cell's ATP.
Which of the following is most directly responsible for creation of ATP at the mitochondrial inner membrane?
|B)||A proton gradient|
|D)||Movement of electrons along the membrane itself|
|E)||The activity of NADH dehydrogenase|
Which of these is one of the correct reasons that less than the theoretical amount of ATP (36-38) is actually created during aerobic respiration?
|A)||Because of the efficiency of chemiosmosis, the result is actually much higher.|
|B)||FADH2 actually consumes some ATP.|
|C)||The cell membrane is somewhat leaky to electrons.|
|D)||The proton gradient can facilitate other tasks besides ATP synthesis.|
|E)||You have to add in ATP produced during glycolysis, which has nothing to do with oxidation.|
True or False: The purpose of fermentation is to make ethanol.
What process must occur to allow amino acids to be catabolized for energy?
Primitive prokaryotes probably used H2S instead of water as a source of electrons. What would have been released into the environment as photosynthesis occurred?