Temira tells her roommate, Carmella, that she recently read that people who paint their rooms blue get better grades. Carmella knows that painting their room will be a lot of work. Therefore, she asks Temira where she got her information and what evidence her sources had for their conclusion. She also wonders if there might not be another reason that people with blue rooms have higher gradesfor example, maybe smart people prefer the color blue. What skill is Carmella using?
While reading a magazine, Jordan sees an advertisement that claims that a new weight-loss pill will help anyone lose weight without exercising. The advertisement includes a picture of a woman when she was obese and another picture of her looking thin and fit. Though the pictures are very compelling, Jordan knows that she needs to examine advertisements critically. Which of the following questions BEST represents critical thinking?
|A)||Why would a woman agree to be in this advertisement?|
|B)||Is this woman a professional model?|
|C)||What would my friends think about my taking a weight-loss pill?|
|D)||Are there other possible explanations for the woman's weight loss, other than the pill being advertised?|
After encountering a number of patients who had physical problems without any apparent physical cause, Sigmund Freud reasoned that the causes must be psychological and beyond his patients' conscious awareness. For example, one of his patients, a woman named Anna O., sometimes developed paralysis in her limbs even though there was nothing physically wrong with her. Based on his observations, Freud eventually developed a theory he called psychoanalysis. What was Freud actually analyzing?
|A)||internal, mostly unconscious psychological forces|
|B)||physical causes of psychological problems|
|C)||how the environment is constantly affecting our behavior|
|D)||how people find ultimate meaning in their lives|
Dr. Mateo believes that every child is born a "blank slate." Children's early environments shape their personalities, though the children may be continually affected by their environments as they grow. Everything comes down to a simple principle in Dr. Mateo's mind: If our behaviors are followed by satisfying consequences, we will repeat them, and if the consequences are unsatisfying, we won't repeat them. Dr. Mateo is probably a _____ therapist.
Dewayne is taking a psychology class. He isn't really interested in discussions about the unconscious, childhood influences, or the way different structures in the brain work. Instead, he is interested in the purpose of certain psychological mechanisms. For example, he wonders why we feel disgusted by a food that made us sick or why some emotions are the same all over the world and others aren't. Dewayne is thinking most like a
Paxton has difficulty with dating. Whenever his friends point out a woman they think he should approach, he finds himself thinking about how she will probably reject him. As a result, he rarely asks anyone out, and he complains to his friends that women don't like "nice guys." A cognitive psychologist would probably say that Paxton should
|A)||examine his childhood experiences for the source of his lack of confidence.|
|B)||use free association to explore long-forgotten childhood experiences and traumas.|
|C)||work towards what is most important to him rather than focusing on his friends' ideas of what is attractive or on their insistence that he find someone to date.|
|D)||examine his thoughts and actions to see what keeps him stuck in this pattern.|
It has been said that no two people have the same parents, since parents respond to and treat each child differently. Watson and Skinner would probably_____ with this statement because _____.
|A)||disagree; siblings exhibit similarities learned from their parents|
|B)||disagree; one's environment changes based on one's responses to it|
|C)||agree; one's environment changes based on one's responses to it|
|D)||agree; siblings exhibit similarities learned from their parents|
Amelia was raised in a low-income environment by a single mother. She went through tremendous hardships in her life simply because of the neighborhood and circumstances in which she was raised. As an adult, Amelia wants to implement and develop intervention programs so that children growing up in similar environments today have less of a struggle. Amelia should look into
|D)||school and educational psychology.|
Stan grew up in the United States and Carlos grew up in Chile. When given the option, what types of tasks would you assume Stan and Carlos would choose?
|A)||Stan would choose to complete a novel and difficult puzzle; Carlos would prefer a simple and familiar puzzle.|
|B)||Stan would choose a simple and familiar puzzle; Carlos would prefer a novel and difficult puzzle.|
|C)||Both would prefer a simple and familiar puzzle.|
|D)||Both would prefer a novel and difficult puzzle.|
Company A is interested in hiring a psychologist to restructure how executives communicate with rank-and-file workers. Company B is interested in hiring a psychologist to help design their offices in the most optimal fashion. Who should these companies hire?
|A)||Company A should hire a social psychologist and Company B should hire an industrial organizational psychologist.|
|B)||Company A should hire an environmental psychologist and Company B should hire an industrial organizational psychologist.|
|C)||Company A should hire an industrial organizational psychologist and Company B should hire an environmental psychologist.|
|D)||Company A should hire an industrial organizational psychologist and Company B should hire a community psychologist.|