How does climate affect chemical and mechanical weathering?
|A)||Chemical and mechanical weathering occur more rapidly in warm, wet climates.|
|B)||Mechanical weathering occurs more rapidly in warm, wet climates, and chemical weathering occurs more in cold climates.|
|C)||Chemical weathering occurs more rapidly in warm, wet climates, and mechanical weathering occurs more in cold climates.|
|D)||Chemical weathering occurs more rapidly in dry climates and mechanical weathering occurs more in windy climates.|
Each layer of a soil profile is called a __________.
Why does clearing tropical rain forests have an adverse effect on soil quality?
|A)||Burning fields leave ash and soot in the soil, making it impossible to grow crops.|
|B)||Uprooting trees makes the soil vulnerable to erosion.|
|C)||By clearing rain forests soil is vulnerable to direct sunlight that damages the richness of the soil.|
|D)||The soil is only good for farmers for a few years before the nutrients are gone because the soil is almost infertile below the first few centimeters.|
Why is ice wedging most obvious in the mountains?
|A)||because the temperature changes in the mountains allow for the repeated freezing and thawing of water caught in cracks of rocks|
|B)||because gravity pulls on the water in the cracks more if its found higher in the mountains|
|C)||because the pressure in the mountains allows for the repeated freezing and thawing of water caught in cracks of rocks|
|D)||because the altitude directly contributes to how the water freezes in the cracks of rocks|
Climate affects soil types; for instance, prairie soils have __________.
|A)||granitic C horizons because little or no grass grows there|
|B)||thick, dark, A horizons because of all the grasses that contribute organic materials|
|C)||thin, lightly colored A horizons because of the lack of vegetation|
|D)||thinner A and B horizons due to leaching, which is promoted by rainfall|
__________ is a method in which level-topped areas are built into steep-sided hills.
How do construction sites attempt to reduce erosion?
|A)||They replace topsoil that has been removed during construction.|
|B)||all answers are correct|
|C)||They spray exposed soil with water to prevent wind erosion.|
|D)||They cover exposed ground with plastic to prevent wind erosion.|
How is surface area related to chemical weathering?
|A)||Increased surface area allows for more interactions of rocks with plants and animals.|
|B)||Decreased surface area allows for more interactions of rocks with water and oxygen.|
|C)||Increased surface area allows for more interactions of rocks with water and oxygen.|
|D)||Decreased surface area allows for more ice wedging.|
In which horizon of a soil profile is the parent material usually found?
Decayed organic material turns into a dark colored material called ___________.
Soil is a mixture of __________.
|A)||all answers are correct|
|B)||weathered rock and water|
|C)||decayed organic matter and oxygen|
A soil's composition is dependent on weathering because __________.
|A)||it keeps the soil moist|
|B)||it moves the topsoil to other areas where it is more needed|
|C)||it contributes sediment to the soil|
|D)||it makes the soil more fertile|
How do farmers attempt to manage crops to reduce soil erosion?
|A)||They plant shelter belts to protect crops from wind erosion.|
|B)||They practice no-till farming.|
|C)||They use animals to graze over vegetation instead of plowing.|
|D)||all answers are correct|
When water mixes with carbon dioxide in the air, it forms __________.
How does grazing affect soil?
|A)||Grazing can be used in place of plowing in no-till farming.|
|B)||all answers are correct|
|C)||Overgrazing can leave soil vulnerable to wind and water erosion.|
|D)||Grazing can improve soil quality due to organic matter that livestock leaves behind.|
How do chemical and mechanical weathering differ?
|A)||Plant roots can help mechanical weathering occur, but have no impact on soil when it comes to chemical weathering.|
|B)||Mechanical weathering occurs when rocks are broken by physical processes, and chemical weathering happens when chemical reactions dissolve minerals.|
|C)||Chemical weathering can occur with the help of water reacting with carbon dioxide, and water has nothing to do with mechanical weathering.|
|D)||Mechanical and chemical weathering can happen with the help of animals.|
In which horizon of a soil profile does leaching normally occur?
How does soil erosion affect topsoil?
|A)||It moves the topsoil to other areas where it is more needed.|
|B)||It washes it away.|
|C)||It keeps it moist.|
|D)||It makes it more fertile.|
How does agricultural cultivation contribute to soil erosion?
|A)||Farmers who plow their land uproot plant roots which hold soil in place.|
|B)||Farmers who plow their land remove soil to make planting more productive.|
|C)||When farmers plow their land they leave it vulnerable to animals that use and remove soil to build their homes.|
|D)||Farmers who cultivate their land bring in livestock to help stop soil erosion.|
Erosion is more common on __________.
|D)||on gently sloping hills|