Tamara normally feeds her cat canned cat food. She noticed that every time she uses her electric can opener, her cat comes to the kitchen. What is the conditioned stimulus?
|A)||the cat food|
|B)||the sound of the electric can opener|
|C)||the cat coming to the kitchen|
Robert had a serious car accident while Mozart was playing on his stereo. Now, every time Robert hears a Mozart song, he feels frightened and panicked. What is the unconditioned stimulus?
|A)||the car accident|
|B)||Robert's fear and anxiety|
|C)||music by Mozart|
|D)||driving a car|
Robert developed a conditioned response of fear and anxiety to hearing music by Mozart. If he were to have the same response to any classical music, it would be called
When a child hears a loud noise, he cries. The family's dog often barks loudly. Each time the child sees the dog, he cries. What is the conditioned response?
|B)||the loud noise|
Contingency in classical conditioning refers to
|A)||the amount of time that passes between the conditioned stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus.|
|B)||the frequency with which the conditioned stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus occur together.|
|C)||the pairing of the conditioned response with the unconditioned response.|
|D)||the weakening of the conditioned response when the unconditioned stimulus is absent.|
Juan developed a fear of dogs after being attacked by one. His counselor helped him to overcome this fear by teaching him to relax in the presence of dogs. Eventually, he was no longer afraid of dogs. Which of the following processes occurred?
You have trained your dog to bark on command by giving her rawhides when she is successful. However, you quit giving her the rawhides when she barks and you find that eventually she will not bark on command. What has occurred?
Dogs are often used in airports to detect explosives materials and/or narcotics. Their trainers teach them to smell out a certain substance by rewarding them with treats for correctly identifying a substance. In what type of learning are the dogs engaging?
When a teenager gets poor grades, his father takes away his cell phone. This consequence is a
A supervisor comes into the workplace to check on her employees every hour and a half. An observer notices that the workers increase their work behavior about 10 minutes before the supervisor arrives and then decrease their work behavior after she leaves. On what type of reinforcement schedule are the workers?
|A)||a fixed-ratio schedule|
|B)||a variable-ratio schedule|
|C)||a fixed-interval schedule|
|D)||a variable-interval schedule|
Which neurotransmitter has been shown to be most closely associated with reinforcement of behaviors?
The classic Bobo doll study, where a child punched a doll after seeing an adult do the same, was a demonstration of
After studying a psychological concept for some time, Vatana still has not been able to grasp the concept. However, while she is driving to work, she has an "ah-ha!" moment and the concept finally makes complete sense to her. Vatana has experienced
Wanda didn't study for her chemistry test and ended up getting a D. She decides to study really hard for the next test but still gets a D. When her friend asks her how her studying is going for the third test, Wanda says, "It doesn't matter if I study or not, I always get the same grade so I'm not going to bother." Wanda's attitude is best explained by
Taste aversion can be explained by
One of the students in your class often asks questions of your professor. You see that the professor rolls her eyes each time the student asks a question. You find that you are reluctant to ask the professor a question. What have you experienced?
Horatio's mother has been nagging him for weeks to clean the garage. When he does so, his mother's nagging ceases. Horatio's mother's nagging was a
Which of the following statements is correct?
|A)||Classical conditioning focuses on involuntary responses, whereas operant conditioning focuses on voluntary behaviors.|
|B)||Classical conditioning is involved with negative outcomes, whereas operant conditioning is involved with positive outcomes.|
|C)||Extinction occurs in classical conditioning, but not in operant conditioning.|
|D)||Shaping occurs in classical conditioning, but not in operant conditioning.|
Which brain structure has been shown to be related to learning through reinforcement?
Which of the following is not one of the processes involved in observational learning?