Biology, Eighth Edition (Raven)
Learning OutcomesChapter 56
- Describe the concept of a biological community and be able to cite several examples.
- Distinguish between individualistic concept of community and the holistic concept of community.
- Explain how an organism’s fundamantal niche differs from its realized niche and the importance of both fit into the organism’s habitat.
- Describe the effects of interspecific competition and how it can leads to competitive exclusion or species adaptation.
- Understand how predation affects prey population and ultimately evolution.
- Understand the principle of competitive exclusion and how there can be niche overlap where both species coexist.
- Explain how character displacement can alleviate competition.
- Understand the process of co-evolution and its advantages to both participants.
- Describe how an introduced species or elimination of a predator can perturb predator-prey cycles.
- Be able to cite examples of the co-evolutionary arms race.
- Describe the various ways in which plants defend themselves against being consumed by herbivores.
- Explain how some animals use plant secondary compounds in their own defense from predators.
- Differentiate between cryptic and aposematic coloration in terms of appearance, social habits, and selective advantages to other organisms.
- Differentiate between Batesian and Muellerian mimicry and give examples of each.
- Give examples of the various forms of symbiotic relationships and identify the category into which each should be placed.
- Explain how a parasite can manipulate its host behavior.
- Understand why it is difficult to differentiate between commensalism and mutualism, even though they are clearly different from one another by definition.
- Describe the intricacies of a parasitic relationship.
- Describe and give examples of the importance of a keystone species.
- Differentiate between primary and secondary succession and give examples of each.
- Describe how animals assemblages change in synchrony as vegetation changes during succession.
- Explain how a disturbance, either locally or widespread, can affect stability in a community.