Cailean has always wished she had a "photographic memory." She sits on the steps of one of the academic buildings and watches the people. Sometimes she closes her eyes and tries to recall everything about what she was seeing. Each time, though, the memory quickly seems to dissolve. In what kind of memory is the visual information stored while it lasts?
Rosa is trying to memorize her school ID number. She is having trouble, because the number is 12 digits long. What would BEST help Rosa learn the number?
|A)||repeat the digits over and over to herself|
|B)||say the digits out loud|
|C)||chunk the digits together|
|D)||read the digits to a friend|
Toby and Karen just met their new neighbor, Justine. Toby repeats Justine's name over and over to remember it. Meanwhile, Karen notes that Justine is leaving "just in time" to get dinner on the table. The following day, who is more likely to recall the neighbor's name and why?
|A)||Toby, because it is easier for a man to remember a woman's name than vice versa|
|B)||Toby, because rote rehearsal is the most effective way to encode information|
|C)||Neither is more likely than the other to remember Justine's name.|
|D)||Karen, because she encoded the name by elaborating on it with other information|
Jen's dad sends her to the grocery store for a few last-minute dinner items. Jen repeats the list of 10 items as she walks to the store, but can only remember the first and last three items when she gets thereshe is unable to remember the four in the middle. This U-shaped pattern of recall is
|A)||called working memory overload.|
|B)||the key indicator of attention deficit disorder.|
|C)||called the serial position effect.|
|D)||common only in women.|
Jen's dad sends her to the grocery store for a few last-minute dinner items. Jen repeats the list of 10 items as she walks to the store, but can only remember the first and last three items when she gets thereshe is unable to remember the four in the middle. Why did she forget the four items in the middle of the list?
|A)||The items were probably vegetables, since research shows that vegetable names are difficult for most people to remember.|
|B)||Exercise tends to degrade information if it has just been learned.|
|C)||Because her father gave her the list all at once, Jen wasn't able to hold each item in her short-term memory long enough to encode it for long-term storage.|
|D)||The four middle items never entered her sensory memory.|
Yesterday, Colleen went to an interesting lecture on relationship problems. She didn't take notes because she isn't going to be tested on the lecture. Though she made no effort to memorize any of the information the speaker presented, she is able to repeat a great deal of it to a friend. In particular, she is able to remember the parts that she felt applied to her own past relationships. Which concept explains why?
|A)||levels of processing|
A middle-school teacher places words such as "calm" and "success" on the walls of his classroom to impact the behavior and achievement of his students. What memory process is he using?
Jennifer and Jeff are studying for their geography exam. Jeff is learning the states' capitals by repeating them over and over. Jennifer is incorporating information she already knows about each state into the name of the capital. While Jeff is repeating "Sacramento is the capital of California, Sacramento is the capital of California," Jennifer is saying "SacraTOMATO is the capital of California" because she knows Sacramento is in the middle of a rich agricultural valley. If the levels-of-processing theory is correct,
|A)||Jeff and Jennifer will do equally well on the exam.|
|B)||Jennifer will recall the capitals and their states better than Jeff.|
|C)||Jeff will recall the capitals and their states better than Jennifer.|
|D)||who does better has more to do with personality differences than study techniques.|
Betsy went to a restaurant last night with friends. Though Betsy had never been to this particular restaurant, she knew how to be seated, order, eat, and pay the bill. Betsy has a _____for going to restaurants.
Yuriko is testifying in a court case. After she finishes recounting what she saw to the jury, the attorney asks her how certain she is that her testimony is accurate. She says that she is 99% sure. Haroun is also testifying, and when he has told his version of the story, the attorney asks him how sure he is that his memory is accurate. He says that he is 75% sure. Based solely on this information, the jury chooses to believe Yariko and not Haroun. Are they correct to do so?
|A)||Yes, because confidence is always associated with accuracy.|
|B)||Yes, because women's memories tend to be more accurate than men's.|
|C)||No, because men's memories tend to be more accurate than women's.|
|D)||No, because confidence and accuracy are weakly related.|